Download Boron Proxies in Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology PDF

Boron Proxies in Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology

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Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
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ISBN : 1119010632
Pages : 241 pages
Rating : 4.0/5 (1 Download)

Download and Read Boron Proxies in Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology PDF by Bärbel Hönisch Full Book and published by John Wiley & Sons. This book was released on 2019-05-13 with total page 241 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions do not only warm our planet but also acidify our oceans. It is currently unclear to which degree Earth’s climate and marine life will be impacted by these changes but information from Earth history, particularly the geochemical signals of past environmental changes stored in the fossil remains of marine organisms, can help us predict possible future changes. This book aims to be a primer for scientists who seek to apply boron proxies in marine carbonates to estimate past seawater carbonate chemistry and atmospheric pCO2. Boron proxies (δ11B and B/Ca) were introduced nearly three decades ago, with subsequent strides being made in understanding their mechanistic functioning. This text reviews current knowledge about the aqueous systematics, the inorganic and biological controls on boron isotope fractionation and incorporation into marine carbonates, as well as the analytical techniques for measurement of boron proxies. Laboratory and field calibrations of the boron proxies are summarized, and similarities between modern calibrations are explored to suggest estimates for proxy sensitivities in marine calcifiers that are now extinct. Example applications illustrate the potential for reconstructing paleo-atmospheric pCO2 from boron isotopes. Also explored are the sensitivity of paleo-ocean acidity and pCO2 reconstructions to boron isotope proxy systematics that are currently less well understood, including the elemental and boron isotopic composition of seawater through time, seawater alkalinity, temperature and salinity, and their collective impact on the uncertainty of paleo-reconstructions. The B/Ca proxy is based on the same mechanistic principles as the boron isotope proxy, but empirical calibrations suggest seawater pH is not the only controlling factor. B/Ca therefore has the potential to provide a second carbonate parameter that could be paired with δ11B to fully constrain the ocean carbonate system, but the associated uncertainties are large. This text reviews and examines what is currently known about the B/Ca proxy systematics. As more scientists embark on characterizing past ocean acidity and atmospheric pCO2, Boron in Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology provides a resource to introduce geoscientists to the opportunities and complications of boron proxies, including potential avenues to further refine them.


Download Boron Proxies in Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology PDF

Boron Proxies in Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology

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Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date :
ISBN : 1119010640
Pages : 248 pages
Rating : 4.0/5 (1 Download)

Download and Read Boron Proxies in Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology PDF by Bärbel Hönisch Full Book and published by John Wiley & Sons. This book was released on 2019-02-18 with total page 248 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions do not only warm our planet but also acidify our oceans. It is currently unclear to which degree Earth’s climate and marine life will be impacted by these changes but information from Earth history, particularly the geochemical signals of past environmental changes stored in the fossil remains of marine organisms, can help us predict possible future changes. This book aims to be a primer for scientists who seek to apply boron proxies in marine carbonates to estimate past seawater carbonate chemistry and atmospheric pCO2. Boron proxies (δ11B and B/Ca) were introduced nearly three decades ago, with subsequent strides being made in understanding their mechanistic functioning. This text reviews current knowledge about the aqueous systematics, the inorganic and biological controls on boron isotope fractionation and incorporation into marine carbonates, as well as the analytical techniques for measurement of boron proxies. Laboratory and field calibrations of the boron proxies are summarized, and similarities between modern calibrations are explored to suggest estimates for proxy sensitivities in marine calcifiers that are now extinct. Example applications illustrate the potential for reconstructing paleo-atmospheric pCO2 from boron isotopes. Also explored are the sensitivity of paleo-ocean acidity and pCO2 reconstructions to boron isotope proxy systematics that are currently less well understood, including the elemental and boron isotopic composition of seawater through time, seawater alkalinity, temperature and salinity, and their collective impact on the uncertainty of paleo-reconstructions. The B/Ca proxy is based on the same mechanistic principles as the boron isotope proxy, but empirical calibrations suggest seawater pH is not the only controlling factor. B/Ca therefore has the potential to provide a second carbonate parameter that could be paired with δ11B to fully constrain the ocean carbonate system, but the associated uncertainties are large. This text reviews and examines what is currently known about the B/Ca proxy systematics. As more scientists embark on characterizing past ocean acidity and atmospheric pCO2, Boron in Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology provides a resource to introduce geoscientists to the opportunities and complications of boron proxies, including potential avenues to further refine them.


Download Phosphorus Pollution Control PDF

Phosphorus Pollution Control

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Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
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ISBN : 111882542X
Pages : 169 pages
Rating : 4.8/5 (825 Download)

Download and Read Phosphorus Pollution Control PDF by Aleksandra Drizo Full Book and published by John Wiley & Sons. This book was released on 2019-12-16 with total page 169 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Phosphorus Pollution Control – Policies and Strategies Deterioration and decline of water resources due to pollution caused by humans and their activities has become a universal health, environmental, social and economic problem. Excess discharges of nutrients, in particular, phosphorus, has been recognized as the most prevalent water pollution problem globally. Moreover, its perpetual occurrence and expansion creates imminent threats to water and food security. Despite extensive research during the past five decades, many key questions in eutrophication science remain unanswered. This book summarizes the most recent policies and strategies for phosphorus removal and recovery from municipal, residential and agricultural wastewater effluents and runoff into a concise and up-to-date volume. The book will be of interest to environmental and water resources scientists and engineers, consultants, policy makers, and practitioners working in the field.


Download Amino Acids and Proteins in Fossil Biominerals PDF

Amino Acids and Proteins in Fossil Biominerals

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Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
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ISBN : 1119089441
Pages : 140 pages
Rating : 4.0/5 (89 Download)

Download and Read Amino Acids and Proteins in Fossil Biominerals PDF by Beatrice Demarchi Full Book and published by John Wiley & Sons. This book was released on 2020-09-08 with total page 140 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEINS IN FOSSIL BIOMINERALS An essential cross-disciplinary guide to the proteins that form biominerals and that are preserved in the fossil record?? Amino Acids and Proteins in Fossil Biominerals is an authoritative guide to the patterns of survival and degradation of ancient biomolecules in the fossil record. The author brings together new research in biomineralization and ancient proteins to describe mechanisms of protein diagenesis. The book draws on the author's experiences as well as current information from three research fields: geochemistry, archaeology and Quaternary sciences. The author examines the history of the study of ancient proteins, from the dating of Quaternary biominerals to the present advances in shotgun proteomics, and discusses their applications across archaeology, geology and evolutionary biology. This important guide:?? Explores the main components of biominerals Describes the breakdown of proteins in fossils Reviews the applications of ancient protein studies Written for students and researchers of biomolecular archaeology and palaeontology, Amino Acids and Proteins in Fossil Biominerals provides a cross-disciplinary guide to the proteins responsible for the formation of biominerals and to the survival of biomolecules in the archaeological and palaeontological record. This book forms one volume of the popular New Analytical Methods in Earth and Environmental Science Series.


Download Use of Proxies in Paleoceanography PDF

Use of Proxies in Paleoceanography

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Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
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ISBN : 3642586465
Pages : 735 pages
Rating : 4.5/5 (586 Download)

Download and Read Use of Proxies in Paleoceanography PDF by Gerhard Fischer Full Book and published by Springer Science & Business Media. This book was released on 2012-12-06 with total page 735 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Paleoceanographic proxies provide infonnation for reconstructions of the past, including climate changes, global and regional oceanography, and the cycles of biochemical components in the ocean. These prox ies are measurable descriptors for desired but unobservable environmental variables such as tempera ture, salinity, primary productivity, nutrient content, or surface-water carbon dioxide concentrations. The proxies are employed in a manner analogous to oceanographic methods. The water masses are first characterized according to their specific physical and chemical properties, and then related to particular assemblages of certain organisms or to particular element or isotope distributions. We have a long-standing series of proven proxies available. Marine microfossil assemblages, for instance, are employed to reconstruct surface-water temperatures. The calcareous shells of planktonic and benthic microorgan isms contain a wealth of paleoceanographic information in their isotopic and elemental compositions. Stable oxygen isotope measurements are used to detennine ice volume, and MglCa ratios are related to water temperatures, to cite a few examples. Organic material may also provide valuable infonnation, e. g. , about past productivity conditions. Studying the stable carbon isotope composition of bulk organic matter or individual marine organic components may provide a measure of past surface-water CO 2 conditions within the bounds of certain assumptions. Within the scope of paleoceanographic investigations, the existing proxies are continuously evolving and improving, while new proxies are being studied and developed. The methodology is improved by analysis of samples from the water column and surface sediments, and through laboratory experiments.


Download Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology of the Southern Ocean PDF

Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology of the Southern Ocean

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ISBN :
Pages : 3 pages
Rating : 4.8/5 (822 Download)

Download and Read Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology of the Southern Ocean PDF by Detlef A. Warnke Full Book and published by . This book was released on 2007 with total page 3 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt:


Download Planktic Foraminifers in the Modern Ocean PDF

Planktic Foraminifers in the Modern Ocean

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Publisher : Springer
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ISBN : 3662502976
Pages : 358 pages
Rating : 4.5/5 (52 Download)

Download and Read Planktic Foraminifers in the Modern Ocean PDF by Ralf Schiebel Full Book and published by Springer. This book was released on 2017-02-17 with total page 358 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This book provides a comprehensive overview of the taxonomy, biology, sedimentation, and carbonate geochemistry of modern species. Students, early career and advanced scientists alike will profit from a broad synthesis of the current understanding of planktic foraminifers as an ecological indicator, biogeochemical factories, and proxies in paleoceanography. The classification of modern species is amply illustrated with electron and light microscope images of morphotypes, addresses the state-of-the-art of molecular genetics of species, and provides a detailed guide for any laboratory analyses. The biology of planktic foraminifers is extensively discussed in chapters dedicated to the cellular ultrastructure, nutrition, symbionts, reproduction, ontogeny, and test architecture. Building on the biological prerequisites, the distribution of planktic foraminifers is discussed at regional to global scale. The geochemistry and sedimentation of tests are considered in relation to the ecology of the living animal. In the final chapter, which examines the most common methods in planktic foraminifer research, hands-on information is provided on sampling, processing and analyzing samples in the laboratory, as well as selected established methods for data interpretation. The various topics discussed in this book are aimed at the application of planktic foraminifers as sensitive indicators of the changing climate and marine environment.


Download The Argentina Continental Margin PDF

The Argentina Continental Margin

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Publisher : Springer
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ISBN : 3319041967
Pages : 117 pages
Rating : 4.0/5 (41 Download)

Download and Read The Argentina Continental Margin PDF by Roberto A. Violante Full Book and published by Springer. This book was released on 2017-03-24 with total page 117 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The evolution of the Argentina Continental Margin during the Quaternary and the stratigraphic and morphosedimentary configuration responded to climatic variability, oceanographic changes, glacioeustatic fluctuations and tectono-isostatic processes, which began to impact on the margin during previous geological periods. The final modeling of the margin was achieved in the late Miocene, when the interaction between the Antarctic and North Atlantic water-masses favored climatic and oceanographic changes with a profound effect on morphosedimentary features. In the Quaternary, the different regions of the margin distinctly responded to such changes. Whereas in the shelf the main modeling factors were the sea-level fluctuations of glacioeustatic origin and consequent marine-continental stratigraphic records, in the slope (particularly in the sector corresponding to the passive margin) the prevailing effect was the interaction between water-masses and the sea floor, giving origin to contouritic depositional systems accompanied of gravity processes responsible of turbiditic and mass-wasting deposits. Different relationships between contouritic and turbiditic facies respond to distinct combinations of oceanic circulation variability and the indirect effect on the sea floor of sea-level fluctuations. As a result of this complexity in the regional processes in the framework of the broad hemispheric oceanographic-climatic conditioning factors, the ACM can be considered as a complete archive for the Southern Ocean.


Download Encyclopedia of Geology PDF

Encyclopedia of Geology

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Publisher : Academic Press
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ISBN : 0081029098
Pages : 5622 pages
Rating : 4.0/5 (29 Download)

Download and Read Encyclopedia of Geology PDF by Full Book and published by Academic Press. This book was released on 2020-12-16 with total page 5622 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Encyclopedia of Geology, Second Edition presents in six volumes state-of-the-art reviews on the various aspects of geologic research, all of which have moved on considerably since the writing of the first edition. New areas of discussion include extinctions, origins of life, plate tectonics and its influence on faunal provinces, new types of mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, new methods of dating rocks, and geological processes. Users will find this to be a fundamental resource for teachers and students of geology, as well as researchers and non-geology professionals seeking up-to-date reviews of geologic research. Provides a comprehensive and accessible one-stop shop for information on the subject of geology, explaining methodologies and technical jargon used in the field Highlights connections between geology and other physical and biological sciences, tackling research problems that span multiple fields Fills a critical gap of information in a field that has seen significant progress in past years Presents an ideal reference for a wide range of scientists in earth and environmental areas of study


Download Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle PDF

Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle

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Publisher : Cambridge University Press
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ISBN : 9781139471619
Pages : pages
Rating : 4.6/5 (619 Download)

Download and Read Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle PDF by Steven Emerson Full Book and published by Cambridge University Press. This book was released on 2008-04-24 with total page pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The principles of chemical oceanography provide insight into the processes regulating the marine carbon cycle. The text offers a background in chemical oceanography and a description of how chemical elements in seawater and ocean sediments are used as tracers of physical, biological, chemical and geological processes in the ocean. The first seven chapters present basic topics of thermodynamics, isotope systematics and carbonate chemistry, and explain the influence of life on ocean chemistry and how it has evolved in the recent (glacial-interglacial) past. This is followed by topics essential to understanding the carbon cycle, including organic geochemistry, air-sea gas exchange, diffusion and reaction kinetics, the marine and atmosphere carbon cycle and diagenesis in marine sediments. Figures are available to download from www.cambridge.org/9780521833134. Ideal as a textbook for upper-level undergraduates and graduates in oceanography, environmental chemistry, geochemistry and earth science and a valuable reference for researchers in oceanography.


Download Encyclopedia of Environmental Change PDF

Encyclopedia of Environmental Change

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Publisher : SAGE
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ISBN : 1446264882
Pages : 1496 pages
Rating : 4.2/5 (264 Download)

Download and Read Encyclopedia of Environmental Change PDF by John A Matthews Full Book and published by SAGE. This book was released on 2013-12-13 with total page 1496 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Accessibly written by a team of international authors, the Encyclopedia of Environmental Change provides a gateway to the complex facts, concepts, techniques, methodology and philosophy of environmental change. This three-volume set illustrates and examines topics within this dynamic and rapidly changing interdisciplinary field. The encyclopedia includes all of the following aspects of environmental change: Diverse evidence of environmental change, including climate change and changes on land and in the oceans Underlying natural and anthropogenic causes and mechanisms Wide-ranging local, regional and global impacts from the polar regions to the tropics Responses of geo-ecosystems and human-environmental systems in the face of past, present and future environmental change Approaches, methodologies and techniques used for reconstructing, dating, monitoring, modelling, projecting and predicting change Social, economic and political dimensions of environmental issues, environmental conservation and management and environmental policy Over 4,000 entries explore the following key themes and more: Conservation Demographic change Environmental management Environmental policy Environmental security Food security Glaciation Green Revolution Human impact on environment Industrialization Landuse change Military impacts on environment Mining and mining impacts Nuclear energy Pollution Renewable resources Solar energy Sustainability Tourism Trade Water resources Water security Wildlife conservation The comprehensive coverage of terminology includes layers of entries ranging from one-line definitions to short essays, making this an invaluable companion for any student of physical geography, environmental geography or environmental sciences.


Download Mediterranean Cold-Water Corals: Past, Present and Future PDF

Mediterranean Cold-Water Corals: Past, Present and Future

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Publisher : Springer
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ISBN : 3319916084
Pages : 582 pages
Rating : 4.9/5 (916 Download)

Download and Read Mediterranean Cold-Water Corals: Past, Present and Future PDF by Covadonga Orejas Full Book and published by Springer. This book was released on 2019-07-10 with total page 582 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: What do we know about Mediterranean Cold (Deep)-Water coral ecosystems? In this book, specialists offer answers and insights with a series of chapters and short papers about the paleoecology, biology, physiology and ecology of the corals and other organisms that comprise these ecosystems. Structured on a temporal axis—Past, Present and Future—the reviews and selected study cases cover the cold and deep coral habitats known to date in the Mediterranean Basin. This book illustrates and explains the deep Mediterranean coral habitats that might have originated similar thriving ecosystems in today’s Atlantic Ocean.


Download Deep-time Perspectives on Climate Change PDF

Deep-time Perspectives on Climate Change

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Publisher : Geological Society of London
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ISBN : 9781862392403
Pages : 604 pages
Rating : 4.4/5 (44 Download)

Download and Read Deep-time Perspectives on Climate Change PDF by Mark Williams Full Book and published by Geological Society of London. This book was released on 2007 with total page 604 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt:


Download Oceanic Abstracts PDF

Oceanic Abstracts

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Pages : pages
Rating : 4.6/5 (67 Download)

Download and Read Oceanic Abstracts PDF by Full Book and published by . This book was released on 1997-10 with total page pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt:


Download Isolating Sources of Plio-Pleistocene Paleoclimate Variability PDF

Isolating Sources of Plio-Pleistocene Paleoclimate Variability

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ISBN :
Pages : 472 pages
Rating : 4.7/5 (792 Download)

Download and Read Isolating Sources of Plio-Pleistocene Paleoclimate Variability PDF by Dyke Hampt Andreasen Full Book and published by . This book was released on 2001 with total page 472 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt:


Download EPSL Frontiers PDF

EPSL Frontiers

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Pages : 328 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (15 Download)

Download and Read EPSL Frontiers PDF by Full Book and published by . This book was released on 2002 with total page 328 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: